read Balanced Diet: A Step-by-step Guide to Healthy Eating

Balanced Diet: A Step-by-step Guide to Healthy Eating

Balanced diet

The importance of a balanced diet is common knowledge, but few of us know how to implement the principle in everyday life. A balanced diet includes a variety of foods that you should eat to meet your body’s daily nutrition needs. It impacts your energy levels, improves the quality of sleep, and strengthens immunity, as a result of which you fall sick less often. 

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how you can get started with a balanced diet.

Step 1: How many calories do you need to stay healthy?

The human body needs a certain amount of calories and nutrients to sustain and perform optimally. Calories provide energy for basic body functions and also support the day-to-day activities that you perform. According to the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), India, the average calorie requirement of an adult woman would range between 30kcal-50kcal per kg of body weight. For men, it would range between 32kcal-53kcal per kg of body weight. 

The range you pick will depend on your activity level. Sedentary individuals may go for the lower range, while highly active people should gun for the higher. However, requirements may change during special situations, such as a medical condition or during pregnancy and lactation period.

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends consuming 45%-60% of these calories from carbohydrates, 10%-35% from proteins, and 20%-35% from fats. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are macronutrients, essential for providing energy and helping with the growth and repair of the body. 

Also read: Macronutrients: What are they? Why do you need them?

Step 2: Foods to include in a balanced diet 

Whole grains are rich in complex carbohydrates. Legumes, pulses, poultry, meat, and dairy are predominantly rich in proteins. Nuts and oilseeds provide healthy fats, some protein, and minerals. Vegetables and fruits bring adequate dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals to the table. Thus, including all of them in your daily diet may help meet your nutritional requirements.

Balanced diet

Step 3: Foods to eat in moderation or exclude

A balanced diet should stay away from the following foods as much as possible. 

  • Highly processed and refined foods such as refined wheat flour, ready-to-eat packaged foods
  • Processed meats such as sausages, ham, hot dogs
  • Sugary drinks such as non-alcoholic and fizzy beverages, fruit juices, and their concentrates
  • Added salt
  • Alcohol
  • Fried snacks (foods with high amounts of trans and saturated fats)

Most processed foods are stripped of the essential nutrients that are present in whole foods. Additionally, these foods may either be high in unhealthy fats, sugars, salt or all of them. They may contribute to unnecessary calories without much nutritional benefits. So, avoiding them or consuming them in moderation is recommended for a balanced diet.

A balanced diet is all about eating different varieties of foods and deriving nutrients and energy from them. Consuming these foods in adequate proportions can help you maintain optimum health. Couple it with adequate exercise and you should be able to up your immunity and fitness ante considerably. 

1. Skerrett PJ, Willett WC. Essentials of healthy eating: a guide. J Midwifery Womens Health 2010; 55: 492–501.
2. ICMR – National Institute of Nutrition. Summary Of Recommendations. ICMR-NIN, 2020. (accessed Mar 26, 2021).
3. Camelon KM, Hådell K, Jämsén PT, et al. The Plate Model: A visual method of teaching meal planning. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98: 1155–8.