read How Does Nutrition Help in Exercise Recovery?

How Does Nutrition Help in Exercise Recovery?

Nutrition for exercise recovery

Exercise recovery refers to the return of your body to a normal state of muscle health and strength after a workout session. Proper recovery nutrition allows your body to heal itself in preparation for the next workout session. If you recover quickly and adequately, then your exercise performance will improve and your risk of potential injury will reduce. Failure to replenish fuel and fluid after training may result in sore muscles, fatigue, and underperformance in your next workout.

Role of nutrition in exercise recovery

Exercise depletes your stores of glycogen (energy) and breaks down muscle proteins, and these need to be replaced to recover properly.

The goals of recovery nutrition are to:

  • Refuel the body to replace muscle energy stores
  • Repair the damaged muscle tissue and promote muscle remodeling/ growth
  • Rehydrate the body by replacing the fluids lost in perspiration
  • Revive the body by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation

Which nutrients are necessary for optimal recovery?

Carbohydrates

After an intense workout session, restocking muscle glycogen stores is the most critical factor that determines the time you need to recover. 

Carbohydrates (carbs) are the primary nutrient to replenish these stores. Research suggests that taking 1g to 1.5g of carbohydrates/ per kg of body weight within 30 minutes after exercising can improve recovery. Eating plenty of carbs immediately after exercise is most important for those who are into endurance exercises (like running and cycling) or exercise often, such as twice in the same day. This becomes less important if you have one to two days to rest between workouts.

Whole grain cereals, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of complex carbs. Among these, bananas are a great option to improve recovery. Eating a medium-sized (118g) banana provides nearly 29g of easily digestible carbs that increase the blood sugar levels rapidly, thus, quickly restocking muscle glycogen stores.

Protein

Eating adequate amounts of protein provides you with the necessary amino acids (like leucine) needed to repair and rebuild the damaged muscle fibers and also to help them grow. While the total amount of protein you eat is important, the timing and type of protein you consume determines your muscle gains and minimizes your muscle breakdown. 

According to researchers, having 20g-40g of protein within 30 minutes to two hours after finishing a workout may help your muscles recover faster. Furthermore, consuming carbs along with protein in a ratio of 1:3 in your post-workout meal can promote glycogen restocking

Animal proteins, including meat, fish, poultry, and milk products are sources of high-quality protein. Cottage cheese (paneer) and eggs are the best choices for recovery nutrition, primarily because they are concentrated sources of protein — eating one cup (226g) of fresh paneer or three medium-sized (150g) boiled eggs may provide you with 20g of high-quality protein. And, they also contain high amounts of leucine.

Fats

During the recovery process, fats serve as an important energy source. And according to some studies, consuming fatty acids like omega-3 (2-3g) after a workout, may also improve recovery by reducing muscular inflammation and soreness brought on by intense exercise.

The best sources of omega-3 fatty acids are oily fishes like salmon. Eating a 100g salmon fillet in your post-workout meal can provide you with 2.5g of these essential fatty acids. Plant sources of omega-3 include flax seeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and hemp seeds. Mustard and canola oils are good options for cooking your post-workout meals as they contain substantial amounts of omega-3. 

Also read: Cooking Oils: How to Make a Healthy Choice

Vitamins and minerals

Exercise leads to the generation of harmful molecules called free radicals that increase oxidative stress in the body, which leads to inflammation in the muscles impairs recovery. Eating foods rich in antioxidant vitamins (like vitamins C and E) and minerals (like selenium and zinc) after an exercise session can improve recovery by reducing muscle inflammation.

You can meet 100% of your daily requirements of vitamin C by including a portion (100g) of fresh fruits and vegetables like amla, guava, berries, bell peppers, and green leafy vegetables (fenugreek, mustard leaves, moringa leaves) in your pre- and post-workout meals. Snacking on a handful of nuts like almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, and brazil nuts can meet up to 35% of your daily needs of zinc, selenium, and vitamin E.

Phytonutrients

Phytonutrients or phytochemicals are chemicals produced by plants, which are potent antioxidants that also reduce inflammation in the body. These include non-essential nutrients like polyphenols, curcumin, and caffeine.

Research suggests that drinking a glass of polyphenol-rich juices — like pomegranate or beetroot juice — after exercise can significantly hasten muscle recovery

Curcumin (a nutrient present in turmeric) has been shown to promote muscle recovery between 24 to 48 hours after a workout. So adding half a teaspoon (1g) of turmeric to all your post-workout dishes or even to a glass of warm milk may revive your muscles. 

Studies also indicate that drinking a cup (250ml) of black coffee (which contains caffeine) an hour before working out may reduce post-exercise muscle soreness — undoubtedly great news for all coffee lovers.

Fluids

Exercise increases your core body temperature, and sweating is the body’s way of bringing it back to normal. But, the loss of body fluid that occurs can result in dehydration, if your fluid intake is suboptimal. Dehydration decreases your blood volume and your ability to form sweat. This reduces the capacity to deliver oxygen to your muscles and causes your body to overheat during exercise, adversely affecting your exercise performance and recovery. 

So, maintaining your body in a fully hydrated state — by replacing the fluids and electrolytes lost in sweat — is a cardinal rule of exercise recovery. It is especially important to replenish fluids if your next training session is within 8-12 hours

Depending on the intensity and duration of your workout, water or an electrolyte drink may be recommended to replenish fluid losses. It is advised to drink at least half to one glass (125ml to 250ml) of water every 10 to 20 minutes while exercising and two to three cups (500ml to 750ml) after a workout to optimally rehydrate your body.

Is nutrient timing important for exercise recovery?

You should rehydrate your body immediately after finishing your training session. However, the urgency to consume carbs and protein after exercise depends on how long you have until your next exercise session. 

Importance of nutrient timing for exercise recovery

If you exercise once a day or thrice a week, you need not focus a lot on nutrient intake timing. You only need to ensure that you consume enough calories, carbs and protein from your regular post-workout meals or snacks over 24 hours.

However, if you exercise more than once a day or have two training sessions less than eight hours apart — like an evening session followed by an early morning session the next day — you not only need to eat the right amounts of nutrients, but also need to consume them within two hours post-training. Research suggests that eating required amounts of carbs and proteins within the first 60-90 minutes after exercise, known as the “window of opportunity”, may optimally replace muscle glycogen and promote muscle repair and growth. 

So, if you have a quick turn-around between sessions, it’s a good idea to maximize your recovery during this period.

Are supplements necessary for optimal recovery?

Nutrient supplements like curcumin, creatine (in the form of creatine monohydrate), specialized protein powders (like collagen and whey protein), nitrate, and sodium bicarbonate have good scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in boosting exercise recovery. They do so by either reducing inflammation in the body or by enhancing muscle and tissue repair.

However, the intake of these supplements is necessary only for certain individuals in specific situations, like endurance athletes undergoing marathon training or people engaged in high-intensity resistance training.

Most people engaged in mild to moderate intensity exercises can meet their recovery goals through diet alone

It is ideal to follow a food-first approach to meet your recovery nutrition targets. Indiscriminate and unnecessary use of supplements may result in excess nutrient intakes, that may do more harm than good. Also, supplements can help enhance exercise recovery only when the foundations of recovery nutrition (ie, carbs, protein, micronutrients, hydration, and nutrient timing) are adequately met.

So as you see, recovery nutrition (and exercise nutrition in general) is influenced by the intensity and duration of your training, body composition, and fitness goals. As everyone’s requirements are unique, it may be worthwhile to consult a nutritionist or dietitian to understand your personal nutrition needs.

References
1. Alghannam AF, Gonzalez JT, Betts JA. Restoration of Muscle Glycogen and Functional Capacity: Role of Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Co-Ingestion. Nutrients 2018; 10: 253.
2. Flynn S, Rosales A, Hailes W, et al. Males and females exhibit similar muscle glycogen recovery with varied recovery food sources. Eur J Appl Physiol 2020; 120: 1131–42.
3. Saunders MJ, Luden ND, DeWitt CR, et al. Protein supplementation during or following a marathon run influences post-exercise recovery. Nutrients 2018; 10: 333.
4. Beelen M, Burke LM, Gibala MJ, et al. Nutritional strategies to promote postexercise recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2010; 20: 515–32.
5. Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008; 5: 17.
6. Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, et al. ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2018; 15: 38.

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