read Macronutrients: What Are They? Why Do You Need Them?

Macronutrients: What Are They? Why Do You Need Them?

What are macronutrients

Food powers the engine of your health. A nutritious diet boosts immunity, protects the body against inflammation and oxidative stress, and safeguards from chronic health conditions. It’s therefore very important to understand the different types of nutrients present in foods and their impact on the body. A good place to start is by turning the spotlight on macronutrients.

What are macronutrients? 

Macronutrients are a group of essential nutrients that are required by the body for various bodily functions. Carbohydrates, protein, and fats are classified as macronutrients as they are required in large amounts by the body.

Macronutrients provide calories or energy to meet the body’s daily needs. Each of the three macronutrients affects your body differently and have a  different role to play. 

Carbohydrates

It’s the body’s favorite fuel source, which includes starches, sugars, and fibers. When a food rich in carbs is consumed, it is converted into sugars that enter the bloodstream. This sugar, available in the form of glucose, can be used by the body as an immediate source of energy. 

Also read: Carbohydrates: Why and How Much Should You Eat

Carbohydrates can be classified into simple and complex. What differentiates one from the other is their chemical structure and how quickly they are digested and absorbed into the body.

Simple carbohydrates, thanks to their uncomplicated chemical structure, are quickly digested and utilized by the body for energy. This leads to a faster rise in blood sugar levels, which can lead to type 2 diabetes.  

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, have a more complex chemical structure and are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They take longer for your body to digest, and have less of an immediate effect on the blood sugar, causing it to rise slowly. They also keep you fuller for longer. 

Macronutrients: Carbohydrates

Protein

Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks of life. Unlike carbohydrates, they are not a direct source of energy, but are responsible for the growth and maintenance of tissues, and speeding up metabolism — a continuous process that goes on in your body for the organs to function normally. They also constitute bodily structures like skin, hair, connective tissues, and muscle fibers. 

Several studies suggest that an adequate protein intake helps you feel full as proteins reduce the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin, which in turn reduces the appetite

With a reduced appetite, lesser calories are consumed and the body is in a state of calorie deficit. This leads to weight loss. Optimal protein intake also leads to increased muscle mass, improves body strength, and promotes bone health.

Also watch: What Are Macronutrients?

Macronutrients: Proteins

Fats 

Often classified as the “bad” food of the diet world, this macronutrient is an essential fuel source for the body. They are necessary to promote proper cell growth, protect organs by forming a cushion around them, and keep you warm by releasing their energy as heat. Fats provide more energy (9 calories per 1g) than carbohydrates or proteins (4 calories per 1g).

Fats can be classified as saturated and unsaturated.

Saturated fats: They are known as “bad fats”. When consumed in excess, saturated fats are responsible for obesity and chronic diseases like cardiovascular ailments, diabetes, and other lifestyle disorders. 

Unsaturated fats: This category includes monounsaturated fats (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) that are considered to be healthy additions to the diet. 

Trans fats: These are a form of unsaturated fats, which when consumed, leads to a significant increase in bad (LDL) cholesterol that increases the risk of heart disease.

Macronutrients: Fats

What if you have too much or too little? 

All these nutrients are required by the body in specific amounts. Over or under consumption can lead to health problems and deficiencies. According to Dietary Guidelines, an adult diet should comprise: 

  • 45% to 65% carbohydrates
  • 10% to 35% protein
  • 20% to 35% fats

Overloading on any of these macronutrients leads to an excess of calories, which can result in weight gain. Similarly, if consumed inadequately, it can lead to fatigue, loss of muscle, and hormonal imbalance. The key is to plan your meal with a balance of three nutrients.

References
1. Datta N, Pal M, Roy U, et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Infection 2014; 13: 15.
2. Alfenas RCG, Mattes RD. Effect of Fat Sources on Satiety. Obes Res 2003; 11: 183–7.
3. Solon-Biet SM, Mitchell SJ, de Cabo R, et al. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity. J Endocrinol 2015; 226: R17–28.
4. Carreiro AL, Dhillon J, Gordon S, et al. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake. Annu Rev Nutr 2016; 36: 73–103.

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